Weekend Broadcast

Analogical Language Part 1

A Message by R.C. Sproul

In the study of apologetics, Dr. Sproul shows us the fourth aspect of basic necessary conditions for knowledge-the principle of the analogical use of language. This is probably the one that seems the most esoteric perhaps to the layperson who's engaged with issues relating to apologetics in our day. Dr. Sproul explains what this issue is all about.

From the series: Defending Your Faith

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Further Study On This Topic

  1. devotional

    Augustine on Faith and Reason Part I

  2. devotional

    A Gentle Defense

  3. article

    Faith and Reason

Augustine on Faith and Reason Part I

Any presentation of Trinitarian doctrine inevitably leads to questions about logic, contradictions, and so forth. Opponents of orthodox Christianity often assert that the doctrine of the Trinity is a contradiction because it affirms both a oneness and a threeness to God. Others say that even though the doctrine of the Trinity is not a formal contradiction, they cannot believe it because they cannot understand it. Still others remain orthodox Christians and believe the doctrine while nevertheless affirming that it is a contradiction. For such people, faith is believing the unbelievable, holding as true in the heart what the mind cannot accept.

Clearly, all of these positions are wrong, for while Christians have always believed that some truths transcend our full understanding, Christian truth is never irrational. God’s Word, today’s passage reveals, is truth, and truth cannot be selfcontradictory. If it were otherwise, we could not know anything. If truth is contradictory, the word truth loses all meaning. Our Lord calls us to love Him with our minds (Matt. 22:37). We love Him with our minds by studying His revelation in nature and in Scripture. Furthermore, this love seeks to resolve apparent contradictions while attempting to understand how all truth fits together in harmony.

So, while the doctrine of the Trinity says God is one and three at the same time, it is not a contradiction because it does not say God is one and three in the same sense. We may be unable to understand fully how this all fits together, but the doctrine does not violate the standards of biblical truth or logic. In fact, if the Lord’s “greatness is unsearchable” (Ps. 145:3), we should expect that there will be some things about Him that we will not fully grasp. Still, to say that we must believe things we cannot fully understand is different from saying that we must believe things that are inherently irrational. God calls us to the former but never the latter.

Augustine understood this point well and often addressed principles of epistemology (how we know what we know). His conviction was that God’s revelation is the prerequisite for truth: if human beings are to know anything, the Lord must illumine our minds. The source of this view is Scripture, which says that those outside God’s kingdom are darkened in their understanding (Eph. 4:17–18).

A Gentle Defense

As people who have identified with the Lord Jesus Christ through repentance and faith, we should not be surprised when persecution comes our way. After all, to suffer is part of our calling as Christians (1 Peter 2:21). Whether mild or intense, persecution and discrimination are an inevitable result of our profession.

Left to ourselves, we would not be able to withstand the onslaught of fallen humanity. However, we have not been left to ourselves. We have the Holy Spirit who, by illuminating our hearts and minds to understand His Word, enables us to stand firm in our faith.

In His providence, God has provided us with the first epistle of Peter as a powerful reminder of His work and a strong encouragement to stand for Christ in the midst of great suffering. We have been reminded that we have been brought by God into a living hope of salvation that can never be taken away from those of us with true faith (1:1–12). Because of this we are now God’s true people and will receive all of the blessings promised to His children (2:4–10).

As a result, we must live lives that reflect holiness and love (1:13–25; 2:1–3; vv. 11–12). Doing so will not be easy; in fact it will result in suffering. Yet to stand firm for Christ in the midst of such difficulty means that we patiently endure suffering and submit to God’s established authority structures (vv. 18–25; 3:1–7). Rather than be concerned with retaliating against those who cause us to suffer, we must instead offer them blessing (vv. 8–12).

That we must bless those who persecute us shows us that we are not always to endure suffering in silence. Today’s passage confirms this, calling us to give a gentle and reasonable answer to those who ask about our living hope. As we respond to suffering with patience and blessing, some will want to know what motivates us to do so.

Therefore, we all must become apologists. We all must equip ourselves to defend the faith. Yet in our defense we must be gentle, avoiding the temptation to be pridefully harsh or overtly contentious so that the non-believer to whom we relate may see the true character of the Lord who dwells within us.

Faith and Reason

Keith Mathison

It has been said that he who defines the terms, wins the debate. Skeptics know this and take advantage of it. Witness some of the famous definitions of "faith" provided by unbelievers. Mark Twain, for example, quipped, "Faith is believing what you know ain't so." Closer to our own day, the atheist author Sam Harris defined faith as "the license religious people give themselves to keep believing when reasons fail." Richard Dawkins, perhaps the most famous atheist of our generation, claims: "Faith is the great cop-out, the great excuse to evade the need to think and evaluate evidence. Faith is belief in spite of, even perhaps because of, the lack of evidence."

The one thing all of these definitions have in common is the explicit or implicit idea that faith is in conflict with reason. Unfortunately, some Christians in the history of the church have said things that have provided support for this view of the relationship between faith and reason. Martin Luther, for example, made very strong negative statements about reason, many of which are quoted by skeptics in their attempts to prove that Christianity is inherently irrational. Luther called reason "the Devil's greatest whore." He said in a number of different contexts that reason should be destroyed. The context is crucial, because in these instances Luther was talking about the arbitrariness of unaided human reason to discern divine things. Still, his tendency toward hyperbole has played into the hands of skeptics.

The vast majority of Christians throughout history, however, have not rejected the right use of reason. This stems from their attempt to be faithful to the teaching of Scripture, which itself provides reasons to believe. John wrote his entire Gospel to provide reasons to believe that Jesus is the Christ (John 20:30–31). John, Peter, and Paul appeal to evidence for the claims they make (1 Cor. 15:5–6; 2 Peter 1:16; 1 John 1:1–4). All human beings believe certain things based on the testimony of others. Christians believe what they believe based on the testimony of the Apostles. Such faith is a gift, but it is not divorced from reason.

If we are going to understand better the relationship between faith and reason, we must have a clearer understanding of these two words. The word faith is used in several different ways by Christian thinkers. It can refer to the beliefs that Christians share (the "Christian faith"). The word faith also can refer to our response to God and the promises of the gospel. This is what the Reformed Confessions mean when they speak of "saving faith" (for example, the WCF 14). This faith involves knowledge, assent, and trust. Finally, many philosophers and theologians have spoken of faith as a source of knowledge. As Caleb Miller explains, "The truths of faith are those that can be known or justifiedly believed because of divine revelation, and are justified on the basis of their having been revealed by God."

The word reason also has been used in different ways. It can refer to our human cognitive faculties. The relation of faith to reason in this sense involves asking whether Christian beliefs are reasonable. In other words, did we properly use our cognitive faculties in evaluating these beliefs? We can also use reason to refer to a source of knowledge. In contrast to the "truths of faith" known by divine revelation, the "truths of reason," in this sense, are truths known through natural faculties such as sense perception and memory. A conflict between knowledge derived through natural human faculties and knowledge derived from divine revelation occurs only if an apparent contradiction arises. Finally, in the narrowest sense, reason can be used to refer to logical reasoning. Christians should never argue that there is a conflict here because this faculty is part of who we are as human beings created in the image of God.

Most of the contemporary discussion about the supposed conflict between faith and reason has arisen in the context of discussions about science and religion. Space constraints prohibit a full discussion of this issue, but a few general points should be made in order to help us understand how to think about any alleged conflicts that arise. In the first place, we must acknowledge with Augustine, John Calvin, and many others that all truth is God's truth. That which is true is true because God revealed it, created it, or decreed it.

HE REVEALED IT: All that God reveals, whether through general revelation in His creation or through special revelation in Scripture, is necessarily true. It is impossible for God to lie.

HE CREATED IT: When we learn something about creation that corresponds with what God actually made, we have learned something true. God is the source of these truths by virtue of the fact that He is the Creator.

HE DECREED IT: God is the one who has decreed whatsoever comes to pass. When we learn something about history that is in accordance with what actually happened, we have learned something true to the extent that our knowledge corresponds with what actually happened, and what actually happened only happened, ultimately, because God decreed it.

A second major point that must be made is this: If all truth has its source in God and if all truth is unified, then one thing we know to be certain is that if there is a contradiction between an interpretation of Scripture and an interpretation of what God has created, then one or both of those interpretations is incorrect. They cannot both be correct. Christians must recognize that the conflict may be due to a misinterpretation of creation, to a misinterpretation of Scripture, or to a misinterpretation of both. This means we need to do a thorough and careful examination of both the scientific theory and the biblical exegesis to discover the source of the conflict. We must make sure we are dealing with the actual teaching of Scripture as opposed to a mistaken interpretation of Scripture. And we must examine the evidence for the scientific theory in question to discover whether we are dealing with something that is true about God's creation or something that is merely speculation. All of this hard work takes time, and it means that we do not jump to hasty conclusions.

God created us in His image as rational creatures. Our cognitive faculties were distorted by the fall, but they were not destroyed, and even unbelievers can use these faculties to discover truths about earthly things—as opposed to heavenly things, about which they are completely blind (Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, 2.2.12–21). We do not fully comprehend God, but this is because we are finite and God is infinite. Faith and reason, rightly understood, cannot be and are not in any real conflict.

Since the beginning,

our aim has been to help Christians know what they believe, why they believe it, how to share it, and how to live it…

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